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Economic burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis on patients and households: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

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Issue Date : 2023-12-15
Abstract :

Sci Rep. 2023 Dec 15;13(1):22361. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-47094-9.

ABSTRACT

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major health threat worldwide, causing a significant economic burden to patients and their families. Due to the longer duration of treatment and expensive second-line medicine, the economic burden of MDR-TB is assumed to be higher than drug-susceptible TB. However, the costs associated with MDR-TB are yet to be comprehensively quantified. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the global burden of catastrophic costs associated with MDR-TB on patients and their households. We systematically searched five databases (CINHAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) from inception to 2 September 2022 for studies reporting catastrophic costs on patients and affected families of MDR-TB. The primary outcome of our study was the proportion of patients and households with catastrophic costs. Costs were considered catastrophic when a patient spends 20% or more of their annual household income on their MDR-TB diagnosis and care. The pooled proportion of catastrophic cost was determined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed using visualization of the funnel plots and the Egger regression test. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2, and sub-group analysis was conducted using study covariates as stratification variables. Finally, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Reporting Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis-20 (PRISMA-20). The research protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021250909). Our search identified 6635 studies, of which 11 were included after the screening. MDR-TB patients incurred total costs ranging from $USD 650 to $USD 8266 during treatment. The mean direct cost and indirect cost incurred by MDR-TB patients were $USD 1936.25 (SD ± $USD 1897.03) and $USD 1200.35 (SD ± $USD 489.76), respectively. The overall burden of catastrophic cost among MDR-TB patients and households was 81.58% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 74.13-89.04%). The catastrophic costs incurred by MDR-TB patients were significantly higher than previously reported for DS-TB patients. MDR-TB patients incurred more expenditure for direct costs than indirect costs. Social protection and financial support for patients and affected families are needed to mitigate the catastrophic economic consequences of MDR-TB.

PMID:38102144 | PMC:PMC10724290 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-47094-9

Description :
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major health threat worldwide, causing a significant economic burden to patients and their families. Due to the longer duration of treatment and expensive second-line medicine, the economic burden of MDR-TB is assumed to be higher than drug-susceptible TB. However, the costs associated with MDR-TB are yet to be comprehensively quantified. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the global burden of catastrophic costs...
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